وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاء وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
Qasas 28: 68. And your Rabb creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter). Glorified be Allah, and exalted above all that they associate as partners (with Him).
People make all kinds of claims about Aashoora. For example that Nuh (AS) was saved with his people on that day, that Ibrahim (AS) was saved from the fire on that day and so on. All those claims have no basis, no Ahadith to support them. We only believe what Rasoolullahﷺ told us. Any claims which are not based on the Qur’an or authentic Ahadith are false and baseless.
1. Musa عليه السلام and his people being saved from Firaun.
2. There’s one Hadith which states about Nuh (عليه السلام) being saved by Ibn Katheer (رحمه الله) which he classified as Ghareeb. Hadith 3904 of Musnad Ahmed also states it which is classified as Da’eef.
There is just one Hadith related to benefits of fasting on aashura:
Abu Qatada reported that a person came to the Messenger of Allah ( صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ) and said:
How do you fast? The Messenger of Allah ( صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ) felt annoyed. When ‘Umar (رضي الله عنه) noticed his annoyance, he said: We are well pleased with Allah as our Lord, with Islam as our code of life, and with Muhammad as our Prophet. We seek refuge with Allah from the anger of Allah and that of His Messenger. ‘Umar kept on repeating these words till his (the Prophet’s) anger calmed down. Then Umar said: Messenger of Allah, what is the position of one who fasts perpetually? He ( صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ) said: He neither fasted nor broke it, or he said: He did not fast and he did not break it. ‘Umar said: What about him who fasts for two days and does not fast one day? He ( صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ) said: Is anyone capable of doing that? He (‘Umar) said: What is the position of him who fasts for a day and doesn’t fast on the other day? Thereupon he ﷺ said: That is the fast of David (peace be upon him). He (‘Umar) said: What about him who fasts one day and doesn’t fast for two days. Thereupon he ﷺ said: I wish I were given the strength to do that. Thereafter he ( صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ) said: Fasting three days every month and that of Ramadan every year is a perpetual fasting. I seek from Allah that fasting on the day of ‘Arafa may atone for the sins of the preceding and the coming years, and I seek from Allah that fasting on the day of Ashura may atone for the sins of the preceding year. (Sahih Muslim – 2746)
Most reliable Hadith about Aashura is:
Ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashura’. He said, ‘What is this?’ They said, ‘This is a righteous day, it is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemies, so Musa fasted on this day.’ He said, ‘We have more right to Musa than you,’ so he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day.” [Reported by al-Bukhari, 1865]